Institutional mechanisms for urban sanitation

The existing multi-tier (State-District-City/Town) institutional arrangement shall be oriented within the scope of increased devolution initiated over the last two years, with clear assignment of roles, responsibilities to the institutions as detailed below:
a. State level institutional set up:
The Housing and Urban Development Department, Government of Odisha shall provide the finance, human resources and technical support to the ULBs and assign clear roles to its subsidiary organisations like SUDA, Development Authorities, PHEO, OWSSB, Odisha State Housing Board, etc. This parent department will be responsible for the implementation of the State Urban Sanitation Strategy. The state institutional platform needs to also provide scope for convergence between the ULB and line department functions further strengthening the devolution initiatives and also build partnerships with private/NGO sector to leverage technical expertise in sanitation and social mobilisation. The institutional arrangement at the state level is thus, a three-tier arrangement:
i. State Urban Sanitation Mission (SUSM):- The apex body, chaired by the Hon’ble Chief Minister, providing overall guidance and policy direction to urban sanitation initiatives in the state, and overseeing the planning and implementation of the state strategy. The Mission will direct all departments and agencies, apart from the ULBs, for the successful implementation of the Odisha Urban Sanitation Strategy.
ii. State Urban Sanitation Steering Committee (SUSSC):- An inter-departmental-executive setup, to provide strategic support to the State Urban Sanitation Mission (SUSM); and to ensure successful execution of the state strategy by periodic evaluation of progress across Departments.
The SUSSC will guide the actions of the State Urban Sanitation Management Committee (SUSMC) and ensure convergence with other Departments for optimising efforts towards successful outcomes.
iii. State Urban Sanitation Management Committee (SUSMC):- A core H & UD Departmental line agencies setup to provide implementation support to the State Urban Sanitation Mission (SUSM); and to ensure successful implementation of the state strategy by periodic review of progress across line agencies.
The SUSMC will decide the framework for appropriate and effective MIS, HRD, and M&E systems, implementation of the Urban WATSAN Communication Strategy, engagement with support organisations, and partnerships (PPP or otherwise) required for the sanitation initiatives. It will provide strategic direction to the State Sanitation Nodal Agency for development, procurement and application of appropriate technology options and service standards for higher environmental and public health outcomes.
iv. State Sanitation Nodal Agency (SSNA):- OWSSB to function as the nodal agency for facilitating implementation of the State Strategy. The SSNA will be led by the Executive Director, OWSSB, who will be the Nodal Officer. S/he will be designated as State Programme Officer, Urban Sanitation. S/he will be supported by a Technical Cell comprising at least four professionals with more than 5 years of experience in urban sanitation, social mobilisation, communication and capacity building. The Cell will provide technical, managerial and professional support to the SSNA.
The SSNA shall set out guidelines for ULBs to operationalize different components of the sanitation strategy; including third party roles, etc. The SSNA shall be responsible for development and deployment of appropriate MIS (including M&E) systems, HRD systems, communication strategy, empanelment of consultants, advisors and other third party support requirements.
The SSNA shall, under directions from the SUSM/SUSSC, liaise with other line departments and agencies (like Health and Family Welfare Dept., SPCB, etc.) to finalise outcome indicators, enable data capture, etc. The SSNA would also seek to bring in successful experiences in other cities, develop collaborations and suitable models for technical options and social mobilisation, including making use of available expertise within government.
The SSNA will be responsible for guiding ULBs in the preparation of City Sanitation Plans, channelling financial resources from state, central and externally aided sources and providing technical assistance required by ULBs.
The SSNA will examine the need and possibilities of improving and securing (making safe) the work conditions of Safai Karmacharis, the sanitation needs of the urban poor, examine the sanitation situation in schools, especially the situation of girl children, with the idea of using this platform also, to trigger behaviour change in the community, design and implement suitable reward schemes that provide incentives to ULB to achieve positive sanitation outcomes, and promote demand-based sanitation while ensuring that suitable protocols for maintenance are set up.
The SSNA will be responsible for advising the state government on necessary modifications/notifications required by law to affect the sanitation strategy, examine the updation of the Development Control Regulations, and provide other technical know-how for effective management.

b. District level institutional set up:
In the current devolution scenario, most of the ULBs (barring the three Municipal Corporations) may have considerable deficits in capacities to plan, implement and monitor urban sanitation programs. While it is expected that ULBs will develop these capacities over the medium term (next three to five years), a district level mechanism will be the appropriate institution for guiding and assisting ULBs in urban sanitation, in coordination with different line departments and their frontline units at the district and the ULB levels. This will also enable leveraging on capacities and programs on-going in the nearby rural areas.
i. District Urban Sanitation Committee (DUSC-DUDA) - Chaired by the District Collector, it will be the District level monitoring and implementing agency for urban sanitation programmes, schemes and strategies with Mayors/
Chairpersons and Commissioners/ Executive Officers of ULBs, heads of line departments, and representatives from local industries associations, NGOs, etc. The DUSC shall:
Remain in constant liaison with the SSNA for implementation of the State Urban sanitation Strategy and coordinate between the ULBs in the District and the State for timely and proper flow of information;
Direct the Integration of city sanitation planning in the ULBs according to the directions of the State level nodal agency.
Monitor the progress of preparation of CSPs, and implementation of sanitation promotion, health and environment outcomes, in urban areas of the district and report as required by the SSNA;
Plan for emergency requirements (floods, cyclones, etc.) of sanitation and also seasonal requirements (festivals, fairs, etc.) and approve the arrangement;
Direct the coordination of the activities of line department frontline personnel towards enabling planned sanitation outcomes
Assist the ULBs in carrying out their tasks as provided for in the City Sanitation Task Force (below) in the initial phase.

c. The ULB level institutional set up:
i. City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) will be created within the ULB under the leadership of the Commissioner/ Executive Officer to design, implement and monitor the sanitation promotion programs in the respective ULBs. The CSTF will be responsible for:
Preparation of baseline database and situation analysis;
Ensuring use of sanitary latrine by all and ensuring safe disposal of sewage;
Conduct of city-wide communication campaign;
Monitoring progress of the campaign and make periodic corrections as needed and regular reporting to district and state coordination agencies;
Working with support organisations, line departments and civil society formations in setting up systems that enable community level monitoring and management of common sanitary facilities;
Developing systems that enable community-based monitoring of public health and environmental outcomes;
Working with the appropriate line departments and civil formations to identify and develop suitable citizen-interaction platforms as a hub for the communication and also monitoring;
Design and implement incentive schemes for ward or suitable sub-city administrative territory and other identified units – schools, slums, shopping areas; etc.
The CSTF will have membership of the relevant elected representatives heading the standing committees and also of women members. (The composition of the CSTF is detailed in Annexure-I)

d. Sub-city level institutional set up:
i. Ward Committee/Area Committee will be constituted to be responsible for oversight and implementation of the CSP within the ward and report to CSTF. It will also be responsible for monitoring the progress of the campaign and school sanitation initiatives.
ii. Support Organisations: CSTF may involve identified committed NGOs and CBOs by allocating clear roles and outcomes. Private sector involvement is to be encouraged through voluntary efforts, financial contributions or the PPP route.